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数百篇TWE高分范文(不断更新~~~~~~)

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:50:17 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 楼主
这些高分范文是从www.testmagic.com搜集而来的,有的是由考生和写的,有的是由美国专门辅导TOEFL的导师写的,大多数topic都有几篇不同的范文并附评分,总体来说比流传的155范文质量要高。一些文章有点评、写作指导和常见错误分析,大家可以借鉴一下范文的论点、写作角度和语言,希望对大家有所帮助。

几点说明:
1. topic的标号可能与大家手中的题库有所偏差,大家可以试一试论坛的搜索功能找一下自己需要topic的范文。

2. 最后一页比较混乱,并缺了不少topic的范文,主要集中在155-185之间,主要原因可能是155题库用得更普篇一些,或者该网站未及时更新。

3. 水平有限,疏漏在所难免,请大家及时指出,谢谢。

4.版权由www.testmagic.com及范文原作者所有,整理仅供个人参考,转贴请注明出处,请勿用于商业用途。

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批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:52:39 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 沙发
1 People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Some ideas of what to write about for a good score:

Most people wrote about similar things. Here are some of the easiest and best things to write about:
•eople go to college to prepare themselves for their careers.
•eople go to college because they like to learn.
•eople go to college because they can meet other people who like to learn.
•People go to college for personal fulfillment.
•People go to college because going to college is an interesting social experience.

Most common errors with this essay topic:

Failure to restate the topic is one of the most common errors that TestMagic sees in most essays. For example, many essays start like this: "I agree with this point..." If we say only this, and do not restate the topic, then the essay scorer will lower your score. We need to say something like this: "I agree that having food that is easy to prepare has improved our lives." Adding this information makes our TOEFL essay stronger!

Many people did not understand the topic. Some people wrote about the difference between college and university and wrote about why people choose to study at a college instead of studying at a university. This interpretation is WRONG. In American English, when we talk about "college," we are generally referring to any four-year program. We often use the words "college" and "university" interchangeably. We need to write about why people want to study at either a college or university.



Sample Essay
5.0
People study in college or university for many different reasons. I think the most important reason is to gain more knowledge and learn more skills. Of course, there are also many other reasons that people study in college such as to get more friends, and increase one's self-confidence.

These days, most jobs require people who are educated and have good job skills. Therefore, the people who want a good job have to study hard and at least graduate with a high education. Furthermore, as technology advances all over the world, more and more education is required of people.

Some people who study in college or university want to make more friends and increase their interpersonal skills. They enjoy their lives in university or college and tend to socialize a lot. They can meet more people who have the similar interests with themselves. They can go to uni ball after school and make more friends who they trust.

The people who graduate from college seem more confident in our community. These people are more respected by society. Many people want to be respected and to be important by family, friends, their bosses, and others in their lives. They find that most of them can confidently talk and do their jobs as they are more educated. Therefore, most people want to get the confidence through the university or college study.

In today's society, people need more knowledge and skills to be adapted. The university and college study is a good way to achieve this.
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This essay has very good organization and is has good development. To raise her score, the author of this essay should add some clear, specific examples and make the conclusion stronger.
This essay has very good organization and is has good development. To raise her score, the author of this essay should add some clear, specific examples and make the conclusion stronger.






6.0
College is a place that the students can learn more and new knowledge and experience in it. Of course, different people have different reason to study in college. For example, some people want to be to go on a further study after they graduate from the college; some people hope to find a good job after their studying in the college and also some people wish to exchange their present situation through studying in the college. In my opinion, no matter what reason people study in the college for, studying in the college is just a preparation for their future’ life.
First of all, students can learn new knowledge and experiences from the studying in the college. There are many teachers, professors with abundant teaching experience who teach students lots of new knowledge and help them to solve the problems in their study. With their help, student can learn a lot of useful basic and professional knowledge which is very helpful for their future’ work. and study. After they finish their study in the college, students go to work in the society and contribute to the different fields.

Secondly, students can learn how to arrange their own time reasonably. Before their studying in college, their life often arranged by their parents and their study often arranged by their teachers. It is very different for them to live and study in college, because students studying in college have to arrange their life and study by themselves. They have right to arrange their part time, such as when to get up, when is the sport-time, when to finish the assignment etc. This is very important experience for students’ work and life in the future.

Secondly, studying in the college make students having opportunity to live with other student and learn how to cooperate with other people. Usually, people often have uncomfortable feeling to live with a stranger, because they do not know each other and perhaps their habit and personality are different. But for the long run, it is good for them. They have to cooperate with each other and solve a lot of problems they will face together. Gradually, they can learn how to care and understand other people. It is a preparation for students to go to cooperate with other people in the society.

All in all, students not only can learn lots of new knowledge from the books but also can learn much more necessary experience such as how to arrange time and how to cooperate with other people. It is very important for their future work and life.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:53:12 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 藤椅
2 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Some ideas of what to write about for a good score:
•arents generally have a greater commitment to their children than their teachers do.
•arents might not be impartial (fair) with their children.
•arents are not professional teachers.
•Teachers are professionals.
•Teachers usually do not have enough time to spend with their students.

Most common errors with this essay topic:
•Failure to restate the topic is one of the most common errors that TestMagic sees in most essays. For example, many essays start like this: "I agree with this point..." We need to say something like this: "I agree that having food that is easy to prepare has improved our lives."
•Very few people stated that parents are very important because children have so much contact with them in the first years of their lives. Most psychologists agree that these years are fundamental to the emotional and mental growth of the child.


Sample Essay
5.5
Parents influence greatly their children for a lifetime. I think people are molded by two factors, family and the society that they are in. From birth, humans are influenced by the surrounding people for their characteristics. Parents take a big role in bringing up children, which affects their lives for a long time.
In early infanthood, babies are looking to moms and dads to learn basic manners to be accepted in society. Some of these manners include not running around in restaurants or hitting other kids. As they grow up, they learn more from parents about social etiquette, which makes them more suitable to live in society. Children tend to look to their parents for role models knowingly or unknowingly.
Besides, parents can also affect children’s study habits. Children of doctors , lawyers, investment bankers, and other professionals see their mothers and fathers work a lot of time, reading books, and punching keyboards, even at home. They are showing their children how to study by their own behavior.
However, parents can also be a bad example for their kids. It is difficult for children who have abusive parents to lead a normal childhood and is possible that they may become similar to their abusive parents when they grow up. In this sense, the parents’ negative role in shaping the children's personality cannot be emphasized more.
In conclusion, parents are the best teachers for their children. They leave big marks on their children’s lives and are therefore more influential teachers than any others they may have in their lives. --------------------------------------------------------------------
This essay has nice organization and good ideas, but some of the language is a little bit awkward.



6.0
Obviously, the first teachers we have in our lives in most cases are our parents. They teach us to walk, to speak, and to have good manners before we reach "the real world." More than even the professional teachers that we have in school, parents are generally the most involved in the development and education of children.
Almost for sure our parents are the best teachers at the beginning of our lives, which actually corresponds to the parents' role in nature. Parents are most committed and involved in teaching their children; they have a kind of instinct to sacrifice a part of themselves for the betterment of their children. They love us and have great patience while passing down their knowledge to us. They wish us a success and thus will not teach us bad things. And of course, implicit learning occurs when children unconsciously copy some of their parents' habits and styles of behavior.
During the second stage of child development, adolescence, parents can still be in the best position to offer advice even though the children might not accept it. In this case, perhaps the child's friends would be the best teachers. Adolescents are notoriously rebellious in many cultures and may automatically reject any advice from their parents. My first marriage for instance, was solely a matter of doing the opposite when my parents tried to intrude in offering their advice. So in such matters, parents should be much more flexible and be rather the partners with their children. So we can see that being a teacher of growing child become more and more complicated case as the time passes and many parents are simply not able to meet the increased demands.
On the other hand, I would say that parents are not professional teachers and they tend to be very biased by their love of their children. So wishing good things and an easy life may prevent children from maturation. In any case, parents usually can present only one viewpoint of the world, while good teaching should be based on different attitudes. Thus, when children go to school and have a great diversity of teachers, they learn much more than their parents could probably give them. Furthermore, once our parents get older, they become more conservative and cannot always be objective in regard to modern trends and fashions. Thus we need to take their advice with caution during that period. However, some kind of intuition which I believe shared between relatives about what everybody needs and great love which exists in a families still makes our parents very good teachers and advisers at any time.
In conclusion, while parents are not the ideal teachers, and well-rounded children will generally need a great diversity of teachers in their lives in order to have a more accurate view of the world, parents are generally the most committed of all teachers and have the greatest emotional investment in their children and their future.
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This essay has nice organization and good development. The author has some fairly deep ideas about this topic and conveys them well.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:54:00 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 板凳
3 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.



Some ideas of what to write about for a good score:

•This type of food is usually not as nutritious as fresh food.
•This type of food is usually more expensive than fresh food.
•reparing this type of food is usually much faster than preparing food "from scratch."
•Cooking is a time when we can spend time with our families. If we spend less time cooking, we will spend less time with our families.
•Cooking can also be a form of relaxation that we will lose if we spend less time cooking.
•This type of food is a reflection of the pressures and stress of life in modern cities.
•Having the option to prepare food more quickly can actually contribute to stress in our lives since we will feel the pressure to do more in less time by using these foods.



Most common errors with this essay topic:
•Failure to restate the topic is one of the most common errors that TestMagic sees in most essays. For example, many essays start like this: "I agree with this point..." We need to say something like this: "I agree that having food that is easy to prepare has improved our lives."
•Many essays talked about the importance of good nutrition. This point is related to the topic, but it is only a point, not the topic. In other words, we should not write an entire essay about the importance of good nutrition, just one paragraph.
•Some essays talked about the dangers of the technology associated preparing food, like radiation from a microwave oven. This is a minor point and should not be developed in the essay.



Sample Essay

5.5
Nowadays, wherever we turn our gaze, we can see different types of food that are easier to prepare. For instance, we can buy frozen foods in a supermarket and just prepare it in a couple of minutes, whereas before it could have taken us maybe hours to prepare this kind of meals. I would accept that this so-called improvement has changed our lives, but I believe that there are some drawbacks as well.
It is true that these kinds of food do not involve hard work to prepare, but food that is easy to prepare generally has some artificial ingredients mixed in it that makes it "easy-to-cook". If we take time to read the ingredients, we would definitely come across words like preservatives or artificial flavorings. It was just a couple of days ago that I came across a newspaper article which stated that someone was poisoned because he ate this type of food. He was hospitalized for almost a month.
Not having to cook has also taken the fun out of cooking. Cooking is an art, but in today's world, this is no more true. People are so busy with their work that they just rely on this simple foods. The invention and production of this foods have made people lazy not only for cooking but also for a well family get-together. It was not like former times when families would sit together and eat freshly baked food. Instead, they are getting these artificial things with minimal nutrients in them.
Cooking in the yesteryears was much better than today's. People would spend more time in the kitchen, preparing the food in the way that they liked it. This brought families closer together and also contributed to the high quality and nutrition of the food. Granted, people are busier nowadays and do not have as much time as they did in the past, but I believe that people have forgotten the importance of healthy, fresh food and of the time a family spends together preparing the food. So, I would say that having food that is easy to prepare has had many disadvantages.
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This essay has good organization and fairly good use of language. To raise the score, the author would first need to explain why people choose food that is easy to prepare rather than buy food that is fresh. Second, some of the language is awkward; for example, "Cooking in the yesteryears was much better than today's." is a somewhat awkward construction.




5.5
It can not be doubted that our eating style has encountered a revolutionary change in the last few decades. It is the change in the type of food that has had the greatest influence. Not only have the recipes of certain food types have been altered, but also absolutely new ones have been created. Examples include yet are not restricted to beef hamburgers, potato chips, and cola drinks. All of these changes contribute to making food preparation as fast and easy as possible. It cannot be neglected that modern cooking facilities play a dramatic role in this trend.
Some people regard this trend as a spoiler of our lives. Their argument focuses on two main points. First, many newly emerged types of food have not the essence of a "complete meal" as defined by nutritionists. To add to the problem, these food types are often served alone. In fact, there are many medical reports warning people from depending upon such fast meals in their food. Other reports indicate a high potential of malnutrition among those who are "addicted" to the common duet of burgers and cola.
Second, the advantage of gathering family members around a meal at home is lost. Fast prepared food types are usually eaten outside home. With the absence of regular family meetings, relationships are likely to be weaker.
Others think that fast prepared food types do improve our style of life. This opinion comes especially from busy people, working wives, and younger people. They believe that we have many things in life more important than eating. Time spent on food preparation is considered wasted by them. Wives will have more time to take care of their families' souls not just stomachs. Family relationships will get stronger. Business men and women will have more time to concentrate on their business without worrying about food arrangements. In general, people will have a greater opportunity to take care of their minds and hearts. Reports estimate the time spent on food arrangements as a large percentage of our lives.
I agree with that food preparation should take its necessary time and care. Otherwise, the time saved in food preparation can lead to longer times of headache or even of staying in hospitals suffering from malnutrition.
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This essay has good organization and good use of language. To raise her score, the author should develop the third paragraph and the conclusion.





6.0
Man, through the ages, has undergone many changes, from a period when he hunted for his food to the present era when man is dependent on preprocessed foods. During this period not only has man changed his mode of eating but his whole lifestyle as well. In pursuit of more in this competitive world, man no longer has time as he once had. He is caught in a race against the clock. A person who finishes more in lesser time is considered more efficient. This pressure to do more in less time has affected his eating habits as well and, as a result, man no longer has time to cook food. Early man's only objective was to seek food to sustain him and his family. Nowadays finding food has taken a back seat to other priorities, such as career and education.
Food is no longer of that importance. This is not an encouraging trend. People are too dependent on preprocessed or precooked food, which no longer has the freshness it once had. Such foods loose their mineral and vitamin content and are not as healthy as fresh food. That is why the number of diseases is also rising. People have also shifted to high calorie content food like French fries, pizzas, and ice cream, etc., which is causing obesity, fatigue, etc. As man is becoming busy and too involved in his busy schedule, he has no time even to take care of his own personal needs.
Furthermore, cooking is an art which is dying out. People once enjoyed cooking . It was a means of eliminating stress and tension. People were once able to relax during this time and reflect on their lives.
People may tend to argue that by using precooked and preprocessed food they are efficiently using time and can use this precious time saved for other purposes. But is it really worth it? This is a question whose answer can invite much speculation about whether by saving this little time we are inviting lots of other problems, which could easily be avoided. It is actually making our lives not simpler but more complicated. We have lost many of the simpler things in our lives, like the simple acts of selecting our evening meal, preparing it, and enjoying it with our loved ones, and we are worse off for it.
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One important note: people in the United States are using words like man, mankind because they are starting to sound sexist. Instead, we are using words like humankind because they do not sound as sexist.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:54:41 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 报纸
4 It has been said, “Not everything that is learned is contained in books.” Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why?


Sample Essay

6.0
People always are learning and practicing through their whole lives. From reading words in text book such as toy, car, train etc., people have the concept and ideas. They further understand the actual meaning of these words by playing toys and riding or driving cars, trains etc.
Education (books) and experience are the main two channels for People to gain their knowledge. Each play different roles for people. In my opinion, knowledge from experience is more important than that from books.
Experience first can prove if the knowledge form books are true or false. Textbooks are very wonderful in teaching people essential principles, how is the world looks like? what is the basic law of change of people and things? We can learn a lot through primary school, secondary school until university. However, people can only understand the really meaning of those form books and justify them if they are right through practices. A few hundred years ago, people learnt from text book that the earth was flat. However scientists found that was wrong through observations and measurement.
The knowledge from experience can improve and advance
the world and our society. As books have limitation, they only teach us the what people found in the past. The knowledge from the books are constrained to the certain conditions and environment. For example, mould and tools design for plastics industry, the university course only taught me very simple cases, most knowledge are obtained from various different and complicated cases in my career.
There are a lot new inventions and new products which could not be found from textbooks. Our society and world are developed through continuous practices, those knowledge, never found in books, such as internet, e-business etc. are all developed through new practices.
"The truth comes from practices and experience", people are continually discovering new things and assessing the creditability of the knowledge written in books. The knowledge from experience help us much more than those from books.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:57:21 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 地板
5 A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position.

Sample Essay
6.0

I am from Arroz e Feijao, a small town in the northeast of Brazil. Building a factory in there will bring a lot of advantages and disadvantages, but I believe that Arroz e Feijao will mostly benefit from the building of a new factory because it is largely populated by poor people and the factory would bring many benefits to this small town. However, of course, a factory has disadvantages as well.
As you know, factories usually bring pollution. If this factory is not managed very effectively and efficiently according to specific rules, it's prone to polluting the local air and water. What's more, factories usually make noise. Beside clean drinkable water and fresh air, an ideal community should be quiet. If the factory cannot maintain this situation to the community, it will not last long. A factory that is too noisy or pollutes too much will eventually be relocated to a new area.
On the other hand, a factory could bring a lot of benefits to the community. So I would support the plan to build a factory to my community for all the reasons I will describe below.
First of all, the factory's construction will surely improve the local infrastructure. To run smoothly, the factory will have to have a steady, reliable supply of water and electricity. Some old pipes will be changed, and some facilities will be renovated. The residents' living standard get improved as a result of these widespread changes, an important benefit in Arroz e Feijao, where many people do not have access to clean water.
Secondly, to make the employee commute more convenient, the local roads will have to be rebuilt and broadened, resulting in improved public transportation. The town's residents can take a public bus to go shopping or go to work. As a result, air pollution and fuel consumption might be reduced.
Most important, a factory's establishment will bring up a lot of employment opportunities for the community. A factory need experts from various fields. The residents can take just a few minutes to go to the factory to work. So, the local residents can get great benefits from this factory.
Generally speaking, I agree with the plan to build a factory near my community. If the factory can be managed successfully, the factory and local residents can have mutual benefit.
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This essay follows the standard pattern of a good TOEFL essay--it has simple, clear points that are supported with examples. I particularly like the way the writer was very specific about how water pipes would have to be replaced; this detail makes the essay seem well planned and makes its writer seem insightful.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:58:09 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 7 楼
6 If you could change one important thing about your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.


Most common errors with this essay topic:
•Failure to restate the topic is one of the most common errors that TestMagic sees in most essays. For example, many essays start like this: "I agree with this point..." We need to say something like this: "I agree that having food that is easy to prepare has improved our lives."


Sample Essay
6.0

Everything in the universe is in constant change. And everything needs continual improvement if the ever changing and increasing demands of humankind are to be met. If I am ever given the chance to change one important thing about my home town, it would be internet service. Needless to say that nothing generally revolutionized the way we live as internet in the past decade. Thus, an improvement in this vital service would mean an even more, unheard betterment to the people in my home town.
It is said that information is power. True saying indeed! I can envision how everything in my home town could improve dramatically if the internet service in it were made free, fast and staying out there like electricity, telephone or water all the time. One thing, a fast free and reliable internet service could improve in my home town is the way people work. If there is a this said service people in my home town must not necessarily commute to a far place to do their job. This in turn would mean less traffic jams, spacious work place, more time for family and recreation and so on.
The way people learn would be another important thing that a fast, free and reliable internet service could better in my home town. People will have the chance to go through tremendous and different information resources in a very small amount of time. They, apparently will also take less time to share it. This assures a more fulfilled life for my home town people.
Since its advent, internet touched every part of our life. It in a dazzling way improved the way we do business, learn and communicate. A change in internet service implies good way of living for every one in my home town.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 11:59:10 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 8 楼
7 How do movies or television influence people’s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.


Sample Essay
6.0

Hesitating I enter my house, the light outside is dimming and the shadows make everything appear unfamiliar. I know that my husband has not returned from work yet, simply because his car is not in the garage. I am alone. I carefully check all the rooms, almost expecting something to happen suddenly. I hold my bag in my hand as if it were a weapon. After the whole house has been declared “clear,” I start to breathe normally again and a smile appears on my face as I realize, once again, how a simple movie seen at the cinema a week earlier can modify my actions.
Sometimes I wonder if I should watch TV, with all its shows that make me wonder whether I exercise enough, whether I am slim enough, or whether I treat my pets with the care they deserve: am I really concerned about their mental health??? Not to mention the hundreds of commercials that try to make me believe I need a water purifier to remain alive since the water I am currently drinking is heavily polluted! And countless are the times when I have heard people talking by quotations learned from movies… We need to watch shows and films to know what to say, how to be, how to act. We are so addicted to all this that it almost seems like we cannot think on our own.
I cannot help thinking about what happened to me some days ago, an example that clearly shows what kind of power TV has over people. My husband and I were in a restaurant when I heard my young neighbor pronouncing violent words in a low angry voice. Surprised, I turned to better understand the situation and I saw that he was holding a fake military device and was acting as if he were filming a war movie. I am sure that if I had been a little be more updated about this type of movie, I would have recognized what he was saying as a quotation. Now, I wonder if he uses such a language also with his friends and with his parents, if he is aggressive, and if so, whether his attitude has really nothing to do with what he watches on TV.
That same evening on the way home I saw two cars stopped one next to the other at a traffic light and as soon as the light turned green they started racing, in the middle of town. In this case not even a major knowledge of movies and TV programs would have helped me: there are just to many of them on the market showing the exact same thing: people racing with cars.
I am sure that everybody, if asked, could easily list many other examples of how TV and movies can modify our behavior and therefore our life but, I wonder, if we will always be able to draw the line between a TV show and real life, between what they make us think we want and what instead we really need and are and believe.
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This is a unique essay; it is written in a more literary style than the traditional "cut and dried" approach of most essays. It is refreshing to read such essays!

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 12:00:09 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 9 楼
8 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

This essay was written by me (Erin Billy) and has 653 words. Even though this essay is relatively long, I wrote it in under 20 minutes. Your essay should have 250-500 words.

Sample Essay
6.0
Television is undoubtedly one of the most powerful means of communication in the history of humankind, rivaled only by such other forms of communication as the Internet, the telephone, movies, and, of course, simple, low-tech speech. Television, with its wide availability and rich media with image and sound, is difficult to ignore and even seductive in its appeal. Television is as much a part of our lives as are our meals, work, or school; studies consistently show that the average American child spends almost as much time watching television as she does in school. Furthermore, because television is so rich in its media, it often requires our full attention or is more attraction to us than are our daily lives. Naturally, the more time one spends watching television, the less time she has with her family and friends. Thus, we can clearly see why some have claimed that television has been harmful for communication among family and friends. However, I believe that, while television has been somewhat harmful in its effects, it has hardly "destroyed" communication among family and friends for most people, although for some, this may be true.
Most people much prefer spending time with their families and friends to spending time watching television. Television is of course an important part of many people's lives, but most people would gladly choose family and friends over television were they given the choice. Furthermore, most educated people are aware of the deleterious effects of too much television and either avoid excessive time watching television, or actually do not enjoy it. I, for example, after a long day at work, would much rather spend time talking with my wife and playing with my children than I would watching some unrealistic portrayal of life on television. For me and my family, our time together is precious and beautiful, and could never be replaced or hurt by television.
Furthermore, the effect of television is simply not so great that it could be said to have "destroyed" communication among family and friends. Granting that communication among family and friends in industrialized countries has decreased in recent years, it might be tempting to blame this problem on television since its rise roughly coincided with the decrease in time we spend with our families. However, I believe this situation is more likely due to increased pressures relating from work, school, and the economy. In my case, for example, I find that my pressures from work are so great that I must often sacrifice time at home so that I can meet the challenges of running my own business. Many of my friends are in similar situations--my best friend, for example, has just finished law school, which took about sixty hours a week of his time. In a word, people nowadays have very little time for anything, but television is not the cause--it is increased desire to succeed.
In some situations, however, television has surely contributed to a decrease in communication among family members. In my childhood in the countryside, I often saw parents and children watching television for hours on end, rarely speaking with one another. It seemed for them that television was a way to escape from their sad, miserable existence. However, even in this case, I would say that television merely contributed to the bad situation, but did not cause it; were television not existent, surely these people would have found other escapes, alcohol or gambling, for example. In other words, people always find a way to do what they want to do.
In short, I do not believe that television has destroyed or even harmed interpersonal communication among most people. Most people realize that television is merely a temporary diversion and do not use it to replace interpersonal communication. I believe that the damage attributed to television is greatly exaggerated and that such damage is most likely attributable to other more powerful social factors.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 12:00:39 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 10 楼
10 “When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success.” Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position.

Sample Essay
6.0
I fully agree with the claim that there is no correlation between success and luck. Moreover, I understand success to refer to one’s ability to achieve the predominant part of his goals in his lifetime, which in turn leads to a correlation between success and income since the accomplishment of such a natural goal as to provide a good future for your loved ones demands the means. What is the simplest and most lawful way to earn enough to consider yourself a successful person? To receive a good education and to find a good job. Both receiving an education and making a career presuppose one’s readiness to work hard, and success without hard work is simply not possible for the vast majority of the world's population. The reasons and examples listed below will strengthen my point of view.
First of all, considering an education and a career as key factors of success, one will choose to pursue a degree from a college or a university. One wishing to be admitted to the university will have to take several tests. It is doubtful that someone will be so lucky that knowing nothing, he could pass the test with a high score. A low score means failure, and that test taker will not likely be admitted. Therefore, in order to be successful, one should prepare for the tests and work hard, because a good education will provide him with a good job and an opportunity to accomplish some of his goals and dreams. In my lifetime, I have never met a person who could graduate from a college without working hard.

Secondly, it is impossible to make a career if one is indolent and lacking knowledge, at least in developed countries. Luck plays no role in achieving this success. Even if someone was unbelievably lucky enough to become a manager not being qualified enough, he will be asked to resign in the near future because of his inability due to lack of knowledge and experience to make right decisions. For instance, I used to work for a very small company owned by a friend. This company was later closed because of bankruptcy. The cause of bankruptcy was wrong strategies and decisions made by the owner. After the failure, he went to a university and worked for another company so that he could obtain experience and become a successful businessman. Nowadays, he considers himself a successful person because he had turned into reality his two biggest dreams of producing consumer goods of high quality and making charitable donations to needy people.

In sum, as long as someone understands success as an ability to turn into reality some of his dreams and goals, he will have to work hard because he will need money. And his chances to earn that money will remarkably increase if he could graduate from a college and make a career. All of these things are simply not possible without hard work. Luck has no place in such a scheme of events.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 12:01:17 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 11 楼
11 Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students’ sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

Sample Essay

6.0
Some people claim that universities should give the same sum of money to their students' sports activities as to their university libraries. They point out that universities should attract more students to exercise, because a healthy body can make a student bear the heavy studies. On the other hand, most people, like me, strongly disagree with it. In the following paragraphs, I will explain some main reasons.

In the first place, an obvious advantage to spend more money on libraries is that enormous libraries can help us save a huge amount of money, paper resource and the time to seek study materials from a far bookstore. As we all known, the prices of books are more expensive than before, while we have to read more books to catch up with the high-tech era. Moreover, now many students are still too poor to go to school, therefore libraries become the cheapest places to provide useful knowledge for them. Just imagine these poor persons can enjoy a varieties of books in a comfortable environment with enough light and a quiet study atmosphere. How happy they are!

Secondly, another reason why I disagree is that the chief goal of university education is to teach students working skills. Obviously, libraries provide more useful information to students than sports activities do. For example, more and more libraries are also equipped with computers which can encourage students to surf the Net to widen their horizons. Without the Internet, there will be less chances to make friend with the foreigners and catch the latest worldwide information. On the contrary, sports activities are just limited in a small area and a few of friends in some degree.

However, I don not deny that sports activities can provide chances to develop some good characteristics, such as cooperation. But frankly speaking, it is a bit wasteful to spend too much money on sports activities, when we can attain enough free exercises, such as running, which gain the same advantages as well. Furthermore, students are easily obsessed by the activities and overlook their studies. For instant, I once used so much study time to play basketball that I failed to go up to the next grade. Although I earned some awards of basketball matches at that time, I feel very regret. In fact, numerous students have the similar stories because of the attraction of the sports activities.

In conclusion, I firmly disagree with the idea that universities should give the same sum of money to their students' sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Nevertheless we are sure that both universities libraries and proper sports activities are valuable. Anyway, to avoid students playing overtime and ignoring their homework should be concerned. Is it wise to spend more money on universities libraries?




6.0

I disagree with the statement that universities should offer the same amount of funding for sports activities as they provide for studies. The word 'studies' means a wide range of activities that a student should follow in order to be graduated at a university or a college (in this case). Studies include reading for new knowledge, conducting experiments with invaluable equipments in high-tech labs, finding literature, writing research reports, etc.

In contrast, sports are not a must for students who study another specific subject stream. Therefore, it should not require that much of dedicating work and money because it is actually based on physical training that can be achieved during the spare time of such a student. It is obvious that the sports activities are essential for well-balanced healthier life not only for students, but also for each and every human. However, if we balance the cost and benefit of regular studies and sports, studies always rank first because of its high cost as well as the higher benefits than achieving through sports.

Undoubtedly, studies require large amounts of money to support a student. For an example if we take a student who study biotechnology. She/he should conduct her research in air-conditioned labs with fine equipments. The chemicals used to run a gel, such as polyacrylamide gel are very expensive. She/He will have to use these expensive chemicals many times. Moreover, the uses of energy for high-tech equipments are very high. Let's assume that the university scholarship bear all these expenses. But the point is that if the university gives the same amount to practice basketball for that student, it is a waste of money because the student's major concern is his/her studies than practicing basketball. The important conclusion is that this student does not need to study basketball in depth because she/he is not reading for a sports technology degree. If one student needs to follow such a degree it doesn't matter to fund him/her in big amount for sports. Therefore my opinion is that university should have flexible criteria to provide only the adequate amount of money for a specific program without assigning the same amount for both most and least important programs.

In the world there are many poor students who have excellent abilities in different fields of studies. Universities can absorb those intelligent students if they have good plans of funding that are mainly focused on studies while assigning only an adequate/less amount for sports. Administrative officers should be aware of all these factors when they spend money on students' support.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 13:21:11 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 12 楼
13 Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Sample Essay
5.0
People may have two choices to eat, either they go out to fast food stands or restaurants, or they prepare food at home, whatever suitable to them. In my case I prefer to go out to eat, as it is easy to get, it saves my time, and I can try variety of interesting food of different countries.

Being a working person, with all day long office work and driving long way, it becomes difficult to do all preparation for making food. For me easy way to get food is restaurant, where I can get prepared food at home or office by just ordering on phone, Along with that another comfort is, that when ever I have to eat together with my so many friends, I can always go to a restaurant, otherwise it’s difficult to prepare food at home for so many people and don’t get time to talk and having fun. So I always find it a easier way to eat out, apart from that It make my other outdoor activities possible because I don’t have to bother about food wherever I go, to any fun place or theater or traveling, restaurants are always there throughout city and it becomes easy every time to get food whenever and whenever I need according to other activities.

Besides that I can save a lot of time by getting food from restaurant as, I don’t have to go for vegetables and grocery shopping, I don’t need to clean, cut and fry food and do a lot kitchen work , doing dishes etc., instead I can get fresh food delivered in minutes.
Along with that when I eat at restaurant I have more time to do other things like reading, watching TV, and listening music, going out theatre, or having fun with friends, that don’t make me tired or boring and I feel refreshed for next day work, so by going to restaurant I can manage a lot more activities instead preparing food.

In addition, in restaurant I get a variety of food choice, I can have taste of different regions, for example Indian restaurant I can get varied food from North Indian to South Indian Punjabi, Bengali, Madrasi, Maharashtrian, etc. at one place.
Likewise, I can taste world wide food variety like pasta dishes in Italian restaurant , tortilla and barito dishes in Mexican, pizza, and burger items in American, noodles in Chinese, etc. and can enjoy various vegetarian, non vegetarian dishes which are specialty of different countries.
Not only that, in restaurant the food is served with beautiful garnishing, that tempt for eating and is worth of paying. I find it very interesting to experience varied food in different restaurants.
To conclude I am fond of going stands and restaurants for eating that is suitable for me because of convenient, quick and variety of tasty food, which I enjoy very much and make my routine easier and interesting.




5.5
As people get more and more busy with their life stlyle and career, they tend to go out and eat food from restuarants or other food stall. But I for one still prefer to come home, prepare and eat my food at home.

I have always enjoyed cooking for other people and let them praise me for it. It has been an extra bonus because I find cooking theraputic as well. After coming from a exhausting day of work from the office, it is fun to be your own boss in the kitchen. I can do whatever I want to do and do not have to ask for any permission or worry about if I am doing everything right. It is the fact that I know what I am good at it makes me feel exuberant.

But apart from this, cooking at home and eating with the rest of the family at the end of the day has been a tradition in the old generation. A tradition that more and more people are forgetting these days. We are so busy with our own lives that we are no longer interested with the lives or our near and dear ones. So I think the best way to catch up with the rest of the family with over a nice cosy dinner and sipping warm wine.

Eating at one of those classy resturants means that you have to be dressed properly with black jacket and white shirt. If you go to one of the chinese resturants that is just round the corner, it is always noisy when all you want is quite and peace around you. Sometimes the food is not even up to standard, sometimes your favourite dish is not available any more.

Then there is a question of hygiene. How well cooked is the food at the resturant? Have they been washed properly before cooking? If food is eaten at home, you are sure that it will be cleaned and washed properly becasue hygiene, to you, is the most important thing.

Even if some people think of cooking as a hassle nowadays, with microwave, oven and other different kitchen gadgets, cooking can be done with no probelm at all.

last but not the least, it's very cheap when you eat at home. A person might not be able to afford chinese 30 days a month, and 12 months a year.

So based on all the above mentioned point, I think it is better to eat at home

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318 学分

2011-12-01 13:22:23 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 13 楼
14 Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer.

Sample Essay
6.0
Optional attendance to classes at universities has been an increasingly popular way for students to study for several years in quite a few countries. However, it has not yet had its intended results as it had been hoped. In fact, today, this system seems to be one of the reasons for the corruption of university education. In my opinion, compulsory attendance is better than having no requirement to attend all the lessons on-campus.

There are two points of view to this question. First, one side will say that university students are adults and should be able to manage their time as they see fit. This point of view says that sometimes, in today’s busy world, people need flexibility to manage their lives. For example, many single parents who are trying to earn their college degrees will sometimes need to skip a class because of the demands of their other responsibilities. However, I believe that the great majority of college students are young and single, and have few responsibilities, and that they need the discipline and structure of a system that requires attendance. Young people who have just gone off to college are notorious for the excesses to which they enjoy their freedom.

There are many negative situations caused by the free-attendance system. The most harmful one is the economic waste for both universities and students. Many students who do not attend classes regularly are likely to suffer decreased performance on their exams and therefore waste their time in college. They, generally, do not feel panic because of the failures or restudying the same subjects for the second time. However, this sometimes costs a fortune to both parents and the government that have created tax-funded subsidies for education for each student every year. Not only are the university fees wasted, but also the money for accommodations and other spending are also wasted.

On the other hand, students who are required to attend classes regularly have no time to waste in pubs or clubs. Nor can they spend these young years, which are more valuable to them to learn and think than any other period in their lives, on gambling or drinking. I do not mean they are only to study without any break or entertainment. Their social life is as necessary as studying during the hard academic years, yet, the amount of each should be balanced well. More spare time than necessary encourages the young to ignore studying and classes. Thus, neither the universities nor the students do their best if the students have too much freedom not to study.

To sum up, many teenagers are not able to think sensibly to decide when to study and when to enjoy with friends. A scheduled chart of classes which have a huge number of options that are necessary to identify the best fitting one for each student, will help them to construct an ideal campus life including leisure activities. In addition, this will stop the waste of time and money and is likely to reevaluate the higher education system in several years. In short, I believe that the majority of college students are too young to manage their time responsibly and that universities should therefore impose strict rules on attendance.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 13:23:03 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 14 楼
15 Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the qualities of a good neighbor? Use specific details and examples in your answer.

5.0
From the very beginning of the development of the society people live in small groups. This helps them to face any problem easier.
In my opinion a neighbor must be first and foremost a good friend, secondly a person with good manners and finally a sober-minded one. I will prove the importance of these qualities one by one so you could understand my position.
The importance of a neighbor to be also a good friend can be proved by the following example. This week, one of my neighbors was hit by a car. When this happend I was staying at the balchony with my father, so we rushed out of the house and took our neighbor to the hospital. If we came ten minutes later she would had died. That's why I think a neighbor must be a good friend that would always help you.
If you have a neighbor with good manners, being neighbors becomes a pleasure for both of you. A day begins batter if you get a "Good morning" from a smiling and nice person.
And finally, if your neighbor is a wise person you can always get a good advice from him; he can always help you with to solve some difficult problem.
In conclusion, a neighbor must be an example of a man from a developed society, because only then he can represent all the qualities mentioned above.




5.0
Neighbours are the people who live closest to us, so close that their maybe only a cemented wall separating their abodes.Therefore, i believe that a person has many responsibilities towards his neighbours. in my opinion the qualities of a good neighbour are, that he should be helpful, friendly understanding and trustworthy,
I would like to quote a personal example here. this incident just happened last year when a couple of my relatives came with arms to threaten my father.Me and my mother were on the door and screaming our lungs out at them. Hearing our voices my neighbour, a very pious lady, came to our house with her guards and sons. She helped us to get our relatives reported to the police and thats not it she walked beside my family in every trial concerning this issue. Now that truly is a quality of a good neighbour! she turned better then our relatives also, a helpful and faithful friend, indeed.
Another quality of a good neighbour is to be trustworthy. A neighbour always has some knowledge about what is going on in the four boundaries of a house. This is because he lives so close to you, he can hear voice, see your appearences, observe who comes to your house and who goes; at what time. Basically, a neighbour can gossip about half of the things happening in your klife. that is where the quality of a good neighbour comes in. A good neighbiur should be tryustworthy and sensible enough to not leak out one's family secrets.
I believe that neighbours are very close people and being a good neighbour is a duty that everyone should fulfil. iIt higlights the basic concept of give and take. As a neighbour is the nearest person to one in the darkest hour of the night also,therefore one should always be a good neighbour so that he is also treated in the same manner when he is need.




6.0
Neighbors are part of our daily lives. They are part of the process of socialization. Socialization is the process in which we interact with other people. In our lives we are always trying to look for a good area to live, a nice house, and most important of all good neighbors. this will influence in the decision of either moving to the area, or star looking for another area. In my opinion a good neighbor will be those who are respectful, friendly, and helpful.

The first quality that good neighbors should have is to be respectful. respect is the most important aspect of being good neighbor. Neighbors should respect your space and privacy in order to live in a peacful environment. Being a respectful neighbor means not invading your personal space as well as your property. Another example will be to maintain a quiet environment not allowing loud music, or noise that will bother others. Respect to one another is the most important quality that a neighbor should have in order to live in harmony.

Another quality of a good neighbor is that it shoud be friendly. All people should be friendly to one another, but this quality is most important when it comes to neighbors. Neighbors are close to you, to your home, property and most important to your family. You might not see them every day, but they live next to you all the time. These are the reasons why they should be friendly. One of the ways to be frienly is by showing they care about you, and they should welcome you to their neihgborhood. Friendly neighbors make a good and united society.
The last quality of good neighbor is that it should be helpful. Neighbors as well as everyone should be helpful to one another. Helpfulness is a characteristic that everyone should have. A helpful neighbor is that, that in the times of need is there for you. For example, if a person is in a situation where he/she need a moral support for the lost a loving family member, the neighbor should give this person all the support he/she might need and encourage he/she that they can count on them no matter what.
Overall good neighbors are those whom are respectful in every way. Friendly, that every time you see them they greet you with a good smile. And good neighbors are those whom are helpful when ever you need a supporting hand.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 13:26:54 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 15 楼
16 It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

5.0
Ours is a locality which has a dearth of good restaurants.Eating out at a good place necessitates a long drive of one hour.Hence

I personally welcome the proposal to build a new restaurant in my locality.
Ours is a family which likes to eat out often.We enjoy trying out different cuisines.We treat a visit to a restaurant as a family get-together.

However since the closure of our favourite restaurant a few months ago we have had to cut down our visits to restaurants.Hence the opening of this new restaurant which plans to offer five different cuisines is like a godsend for us.We are all eagerly awaitng the inaguration of this restaurant.

Every one likes to eat out once in a way.Nowadays one hardly gets time to spend with his family.Gone are the days when the entire family
used to sit together for dinner.Hence a visit to a restaurant is treated as a special get together wherin the entire family can spend time together.However an hour long drive is enough to put off anyone from going to a restaurant.

Thus I would conclude by saying that the presence of a good restaurant in my locality is long overdue and I am eagerly looking forward to the resumption of our frequent visits to the restaurant.




5.0
When thinking about a place where people can gather and talk, I feel it a great thing for the community. A restaurant, to me, is a great idea for my neighborhood. Not only it a place that everyone can go to on special occasions, but also it is good that people around my neighborhood have new kind of food; since there is only one restaurant around my neighborhood. I really like this plan because it really gives people a different restaurant to go to and another place where new food can be found.

Around my neighborhood, there are only one Chinese restaurant for many years. I, myself, were tired of Chinese food and really wanted another menu. One of my friends said no to me immediately when I asked him to go to the Chinese restaurant. People around my neighborhood like changes. Last week, a new shopping mall was opened and on the newspaper survey of how people think about the new shopping place, everyone agreed that they liked it. A new restaurant, to me, will be welcomed by my community.

A place where people around neighborhood can go to socialize with good food is very important. The new ideas of the restaurant will give my neighbors another place to come for business, special occasion, and much more. As I mentioned earlier, the Chinese foods are very bland and almost everyone hates it; the new restaurant may have a different menu that can give everyone a fresh taste.

The new restaurant is perfect for my neighborhood, which likes changes and loves to go to place to talk and to eat tasty food. This restaurant will take part to bring people together as a family and as a community. The more people go to the restaurant, the more exciting and fun the place will become. The restaurant may has many success and can leads to more commercial building to be built.




6.0
It has been recently reported by the local newspaper that a new restaurant is going to be bulilt in our neighbourhood (which is located in the country side of a big city). Some neighbors oppose the building of the new restaurant. I however (likemost of the neighbors), believe that the new restaurant can contribute a lot to our neighborhood, as well as offer new opportunities to the neighbors.


One reason for supporting the building of the new restaurant is that after the the retaurant will be bulilt, I will not have to spend a lot of time in order to go to a restaurnat. Since my neibourhood is pretty far from the city's center I have to drive several hours until I find a good restaurant. The result is that I, as well as the other members of the neighborhood, go only to retaurants only in special occasions (for instance, in birthdates). When the restaurant will be built I will have the opportunity to go to restaurants more often, the way other people from other neigborhoods do.


In addition, the restaurant may offer work for the students who live in our neighborhood. If the restaurant will be successfull, it will naturally need a lot of waiters. The students in my neighborhood, who need to work in a working place that allows flexible working hours, would love finding a job where thaey can earn some money. Therefore, if the restaurant will hire them as waiters, it might help them a lot. I can take myself as a good example: when I was a student I lived in another neighborhood where two restaurants were located. I used to work as a waiter in one of these retaurants, earning money for the university's tuition fees.


In conclusion, I strongly support building the new restaurants in our neighborhood. The restaurant will allow me (as well as to the other neighbors) to eat in a restaurants more often. The new restaurant might also offer job opportunities to the students of the neighborhood.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 13:29:46 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 16 楼
17 Some people think that they can learn better by themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to develop your essay.


5.0
Depending upon their abilities and demands of the subject people plan to study, different people have different ideas about the need of teachers.

Some people think that they can learn better with the help of books and computers. Certainly, modern technology has made our lives easier in every aspect. Today, computers have almost eliminated the need of most paperback books. Students can get the study materials over the Internet now. But in my opinion, no matter how advance the technologies may become, the need of a good teacher can't ever be over-stated.

Whenever we are reading a new topic or new subject, questions regarding that topic start to appear in our minds. We need someone to answer them all and tell us more about them. At those moments, we actually need a concerned teacher who can help us by answer those questions based upon his own experiences.

In fact, a teacher can be a person who knows things better than us. For example, in my opinion parents are the best teachers throughout our lives. They teach us from taking the first steps to good manners, learning lessons from life to the accumulation of knowledge. No one can deny their important part in building our characters.

In old times of kingdoms, royalties were provided with the best teachers of their times to make them expert in every field of life. Even today, many intelligent students are taught, by teachers, at home.

What could be a good example of the need of a teacher that God almighty sent his prophets to teach people about his teachings. Prophets were the selected persons from common people to guide people towards righteousness.

It is an old saying that the knowledge from experience is far more relevant than the knowledge from books. Books make you see the lines only whereas a teacher can take you beyond those lines in to a practical world.

So, in the light of the above discussion, it can be safely said that no matter how advance we may become in the technology, the need for good teachers will always remain. However, again, it may depend on a student's own choice.




5.0
Some people think that they can learn better by themselves
than with a teacher. Others think that it is always
better to have a teacher. In my opinion, I prefer to have
a teacher or instructor so that my learning will
become more efficient and the knowledge I gain will
last longer in my mind.

Having a teacher always makes the learning easy and
efficient. When you make a mistake, the teacher can
immediately point it out to you so that you won't do
the same thing again later. This is obvious while you
are learning a language. You will never know if you
have any mistakes in your pronounciation if there
weren't a teacher beside you, teaching you to pronounce
in the correct way. Since the teacher is keeping on
track of your studying, he or she will know what
your weaknesses are, and thus finding a way to help
you out. Interacting with a teacher while studying makes
the learning fun. The teacher might tell you his/her
own experience, how he or she becomes successful in
the subject you are studying, or even the mistakes he/she
has made, telling you not to make the same mistake again.
You will sure learn a lot from them.

This is my own experience: if I am studying by myself,
I will always forget what I learn right away. When I
first began to study English myself, remembering what a
word means was probably the most difficult thing to me.
Usually I had to look up the same word in the dictionary
over five times a day in order to memorize it. But
when I took an English course in school, I would remember
a word easily after the teacher had explained it to me
once. See, learning with a teacher really DOES make a difference!

In conclusion, having a teacher while learning is
easier, more effective and fun, and most importantly,
the knowledge will be long-lasting!





5.0
I personally feel that only a brilliant student can study himself without the guidance of a teacher.Most people require the guidance of a teacher to direct his studies in a fixed direction.
I belong to the latter category.

To begin this discussion,let me introduce myself.I come from India and at present I am doing my engineering in computer science. When I joined Grad school I was overwhelmed by the enormous size of the syllabus which was to be covered in a short period of six months i.e one semester.In most
cases even the syllabus is not clearly defined.In such a case it becomes essential for an individual like me to have a guiding force who can give a sense of direction to my studies.Also the concepts to be learned in Grad school are no longer simple
but rather complex.It becomes frustrating if one has to cover everything all by himself.In such a situation the role of a teacher becomes very crucial.However I would like to state that the quality of teaching has to be very good otherwise it contributes to further frustration.
In the above situation it becomes imperative to the student to do everything himself.

Another aspect why teachers are required is to keep a check on the activities of the students.Some students who opt to teach themselves may actually utilize the time spent studying in college on other activities like games,parties etc.This may lower the grades of these students.Not all of us mature enough
to realise our responsibilities.We may take advantage of our freedom(i.e no teachers) in indulging ourselves in unwarranted activities which may ultimately bring about our downfall.For instance I know of a student who never attended lectures in college but instead watched movies during college hours.A student like him who was in the
top ten in school failed miserably in Grad school.

Thus I would conclude by saying that teachers play an important role in the all round development
of an individual and hence I feel that I cannot do without their services.





6.0
I support the view that teachers should be a part of the learning process. Below are several beneficial reasons for which I feel that teachers are needed in while learning. Below are also some of the the problems that come up without their presence.

Primarily teachers are there for guidance in a particular field or subject. They give you a systematic and better way to approach a subject. A teacher normally teaches a subject in which he or she has expertise in. Hence that person has made a study of the subject and can guide you in order to help you approach the subject in a better way. This guidance may be in the form of giving you names of reference books or giving you notes. Without a teacher it would be extremely cumbersome to go through large libraries for a certain topic. Besides this the teacher could provide you help with any sort of problem that you come across while studying. The teacher could provide you strategies that help you solve a problem. Without a teacher, this problem would take up a lot of your valuable time or remain unsolved. Teachers can also point out when you are going wrong. They point out our mistakes and suggest ways for us to correct them.

In the end it does depend on the individual person to finally getting down to learn a subject. The actual studying has to be done by the individual. But the learning process can be made much simpler with the proper and continuous guidance of teachers. Hence it better to learn with the help of a teacher rather than learning by yourself.

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318 学分

2011-12-01 13:30:41 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 17 楼
18 What are some important qualities of a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important.

5
A good supervisor is always rated according to his qualities. Some of the qualities in a Supervisor that make him a good boss include like punctuality, cooperativeness, being supportive to subordinates, good in communicating and be a motivator. He should be dedicated to his work.

A Good supervisor should be able to supervise all the subordinates in all the aspects. A good supervisor should be punctual in his work. The employees whom he will supervise will work according to his punctuality. If he's not punctual, obviously the subordinates will also not be punctual. The employees go in the foot-steps of their boss and they will be irregular in work if boss is late to work and is not dedicated to his work.

Supervisor should be very cooperative and should be good in communication skills. If he is authoritative and not kind to his subordinates, the rapport between the employees and supervisor will not remain good. There may be some misunderstandings between them and so the relations will be effected. Praising the work of employees and encouraging them to do some more good work, giving them increments for their good work make employees feel happy at their work. And make them feel good about their supevisor. So, one of the important qualities of a supervisor is that he should be encouraging the people under him in their work to get out their hidden skills.

So, supervisor could be good in the eyes of his sub-ordinates if he's really good to them, not being rude to them.






5
A good supervisor is one who can manage his team of people well. Some of the most important qualities to be found in a good supervisor are courtesy , leadership , patience , composure and responsibility.

Most people would not like to work for an ill mannered boss. It is most essential that he or she be courteous and polite. Every person expects to be treated with respect. Some people might leave a job for the single reason that they were not being respected as a person. This might result in the loss of manpower for the most simple reason. A good supervisor will posses good leadership skills. He or she should be able to command respect and lead a team of people through the task at hand. Employees will not do good work under a person who they dont respect or recognize as a leader. A firm hand is indeed required from time to time to counter slack and laziness, but on the other hand an iron fist would only lead to diaster.

Patience and composure are mutual. Supervisors are expected to be patient and maintain their composure at all times. There may be a time when something outrageous might have happened. It is up to the supervisor to maintain his composure and be patient at such times. This is necessary to perform panic measures and damage control activities. Problems are inevitable in the course of work. A good boss should be able to absorb the tension arising from these problems and maintain his image.

Responsibility is the key to good supervision. The person looked up to as the supervisor should be able to take on responsibility for any and all activities performed under him. There are cases when the supervisor resigns taking full responsibility for the actions that took place under his supervision. He or she should be brave enough to take responsibility in the event of the mishap. On the other hand he or she should also share the good will obtained from a job well done. Recognition is something everyone looks for in a good job. It is the supervisors job hence to recognise and award good work.

Every supervisor is different because every person is different. Leadership , patience , courtesy composure and resposibity are just some of the few qualities that constitute a good supervisor. Similar to a problem that is solved using a compbination of techniques a good supervisor is a mix of various qualities that make him or her a winner.





5
That is a great pleasure and a rear fortune to have a boss you enjoy working with. Having more then ten years of working experience, I have had the opportunity to observe different kinds and shapes of bosses in real life and, therefore, can determine for myself which characteristics of my supervisor I would describe as mandatory.In short, that would be professional erudition and extraordinary people skills.

The reason why I put professional erudition on the first place is that, as far as I am conserned, the boss' deep knowlege in the particulare field of work is a mandatory detail of his characteristic. In the other worlds, the reason this particular person has been assigned to supervise others is his extraordinally professional erudition and experience.Fortunately, I have never had a boss who did not have the level of knowlege necessary to lead and supervise work of others and that was the main thing we admired him.

The next one, people skills, is as important as an erudition, because that is what the boss or the team leader supposes to do - supervise people. From his ability to motivate his team, organase its work and divide the task between the right people,depends how succesful the project will go. I have only positive experience because I was lucky enough to have resonably wise supervisors who were able to explain me the reason why I have to do my best at work.

Summarising all the above, I would like to say that the idial supervisor for me would be an person who would be able to demonstrate the combination of deep professional knowledgive and extraordinary personal skills. As far as I am concerned, this combination makes a member of the team its leader.





5.5
What are the qualities of a good supervisor? Every one of us might have supervisors during her life. We spend a lot of time with them, work for them and generally, try to make them satisfy with our work. Usually we don't have the opportunity to choose our supervisors. But what if we could? what would be the most important qualities of a good supervisor?

The first important quality of a good supervisor is that a good a supervisor should have good interpersonal relations with his employees. This includes being interested in the employees' professional work as well as in their personal feelings. Take for example the case of my supervisor, Tom. When I don't feel well because of personal troubles, Tom asks me about my feelings, trying to give me good advice that will solve the problem. I know that my personal troubles are not related to my work. Even though, it is really good to know that the person you are working for takes care about your feelings and not only about your productivity.

The second important quality of a good supervisor is that a good supervisor should correct your mistakes, trying to explain you what is the right way to implement the assignment you have. For instance, when my supervisor saw that the report I prepared was written inpropertly, he called me to his office, explained my mistakes and told me how to write it propertly. I am sure that in the next time I write such a report, I will do it propertly...

In conclusion, a good supervisor should have two important qualities: he should have good interpersonal relations with his employees and he shoud explain them how to fulfill proprtly an assignment they have. In an organization that is based on a team work ,good supervisor might mean good employees and good team always usually means good productivity.






5.5
I am a person who sincerely believes in Elton Mayo's Human Resource approach to management.Acoording to him the key assets of an organization are it's employees.
Hence I personally believe that one of the most important quality that boss should possess should be to guarantee employee satisfaction.

An organization is as good as it's employees.Hence the supervisor should have the knack of selecting the best possible employees.He should be able to identify talent when he sees it.He should create a good working atmosphere for his employees so that they can give their best.
He should also offer appropriate remuneration packages to keep his employees motivated.He should follow an open door policy wherein the employees are encouraged to come forward with their suggestions and grievances.There should not be a barrier of any sort between the employee and the boss.

The employee who is part of an organization whic follows the above policies will feel motivated to give his best which in turn will prove instrumental in the success of the organization.Mr Narayan Murthy CEO of Infosys,a software consultancy firm in India has all the above qualities.Hence his organization has been voted the best organization in India for three years running.

A boss should also have the tactical acumen to take the right decisions at the right time.After all the success of the oragnization depends on the kind of decisions he takes.

He should also have the leadership capabilities to command the respect of his employees.He should lead by example.He should be prepared to accept his mistakes.

Thus I would conclude by saying that a boss should be a person who inspires his employees to give their 100 percent and also should be able to take the right decisions at the right time.





6.0
It's surely not so easy to be a good supervisor because you have to manage so many things and to deal with a lot of people, including your employees. In my opinion, the most important qualities a good supervisor should have are discretion, finesse and impartiality.

Since a supervisor is usually responsible for a company, project, or business, etc., he will certainly meet many difficulties and problems and require him to make correct decisions. If a supervisor has not discretion and hesitate to solve the problems, he, of course, can't deal with them well, and he maybe lose some chances of business or cause greater damage because of his hesitation.

Besides discretion, I think a good supervisor should have finesse and impartiality. Usually a supervisor will supervise several employees. It is common there is some conflict of interest among the employees. How to make the employees get along with one another well is a task for a good supervisor. Generally speaking, if a supervisor treats his employees impartially, he can reduce or avoid the conflict of interest among the employees and make them work hard. Jinny was a supervisor in my company, when there was a chance of promotion in her department, she gave the chance to a employee who worked very hard, not to her relative who also worked in her department. All employees said nothing bad about the promotion but respected her.

As a supervisor, a person has to not only do his work well, but also manage his company or team well. In order to be a good supervisor, the most important qualities he should have are discretion, finesse and impartiality.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 13:31:02 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 18 楼
19 Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.



5
There is an unresolved controversy what is more important for the city - convenient public transport or the well developed net of highways and roads. That is really a hard question because while each of the ways brings some advancement in the standard of leaving, it also has its own weaknesses. Nevertheless, I personally believe, that public transport is an essential part of the modern city so it has to get support from the government. I will try to prove my point by the following ideas.

Firstly, public transport decreases the amount of the vehicles on the city's roads and thus, reduces the harmful pollution. For instance, I have grown up in the big city with the population over eight million people. Fortunately, not that many people could afford the personal car back than, so we did not really have any noticeable problems with the quality of the air. But nowadays, when car became a prevalent convenience for every middle-income family, city faces a real problem. The enormous amount of the cars in the streets create traffic problems, roads in the downtown are absolutely solid during the rush hours. Apparently, the pollution of the air reached the critical point and government has to urgently find the solution. I think that public transport can significantly benefit the environment.

On the other hand, well-developed and convenient net of public transport will drastically increase the safety of the city's roads. Obviously, when the professional drivers are in charge the collisions happen not that often. Furthermore, during the rush hours, especially in the evening, when people are in a hurry to get home after the working day, they do not pay much attention to their driving. On the other hand, the professional drivers that have been trained to deal with the stress on the roads are able to concentrate better. So, more people leave their cars at the garages in the morning, less collisions we will have during the day.

Resuming the above, I would like to say that if I were the government I would pay more support and attention to the public transport's condition then that to the highways and roads. The convenient net of the public transport is able to benefit environment and increase safety on the roads. My personal opinion is that the public transport is an essential element of the modern city.







5
Transportation is very important to a big city, people go to work or school rely on the public transportation such as bus, train or car every day. The convenience of transportation will have great impacts of people's life and the economic potentiality of a city. A good transportation can shorten the distance and improve the efficience.

Government know the importance of transportation to a city so they spend a lot of money in it every year. Some people think government should spend money on improving roads and highways, others think they should spend money on improving public transportation. I agree improving public transportation is more important than improving roads and highways. The reasons are public transportation can save energy and reduce pollution, besides, it is also a way to save money and sometimes faster than drive.

Improving roads and highways too much will encourage more people go out by driving cars. It might be convenient sometime but is inconvenient in rush hours. Besides, Parking is also a big problem to those who drive.

From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that improving public transportation has more advantages to people, it saves money and reduces pollutions. I think government should pay more attention on it and let people like take bus and train in their life.








5.5

Yes the government should spend more money in improving public transport facility. In country like India where people like to travel in transport facilities provided by the govt. mostly due to inability of possessing a vehicle or inconvenience of driving to place of work depend highly on these transport facilities to go to work.

Public transport forms lifeline of travelers and workers. Public transport is analogous to blood in our body. As blood constantly nourishes various parts of our body public transport provides industries and services with a fresh supply of work force to carry out it operation uninterruptedly.
The majority of work force depends on public services for its daily conveyance to its work place be a factory or office catering to essential services. An improvement in these services on only enhances the accessibility of the place but also improves the productivity of the workplace, thus causing enhancement of socio-economic growth of the nation.

Public transport is some times the only means of transport to a remote region, the increase in trips to the region would make reach essential services like medication and healing to reach in time. This improvement of transport may improve the economic condition of the region thus accelerating the process of development of the region which would other wise have taken a longer stretch of time.

Improvement of public transport would enhance the productivity and development, as improvement of transportation would remove the tension from the person’s mind about his probability of reaching home if he missed his ride back home thus allowing him to concentrate more on his job.

Thus I would support the development in public transport rather than improvement of roads as transportation would comfort the work force who depend on it and on whom the nations development is dependent.








6.0
All means of transportation should be kept in good conditions. However, I believe it would be most beneficial for a country or city, if its govenerment spent more money on improving public transporattion. This would result in substantial standard of living improvements.

The volume of cars and trucks hitting the higways is dramatically rising every year. As a result, the number of traffic jams, accidents and carbon monoxide emissions are doing too. All these factors have a detrimental effect on our quality of life. Expanding subway lines and railroads and developing an effective plan to combine buses and subways routes, would eventually lead to a reduction in poluttion levels, less trafic jams and less stress for the people.

If subway lines reached every corner of a city, people would not need to use their cars to commute. Less cars on the road, means less carbon monoxide emissions into the atmosphere; therefore, the air we breathe would be more pure. Less cars also means less trafiic jams, which translates into less stress for drivers and better living conditions.

Not every country has a well developed railroad system. Consequently, they have to rely on trucks and buses for ground transporattion of passengers and freight. Expanding and upgrading railroad systems will result in fewer trucks and buses on the highways. Removing this kind of traffic from the highways and encouraging the use of trains, would be another way to reduce congestion on the freeways. The reduction of traffic, represents less maintenance costs for the government. This surplus of money could be use for other purposes. For example, a forest recovery program or a national campaign against pollution.

Highways, roads and public tranportation all require maintenance funds, but I think it is more important to think about the future and how to make our countries or cities better places to live in. Improving public transportation, will help reduce traffic jams, accidents and air pollution. A safer, healthier and more enjoyable place to live awaits for us in the future.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 13:31:33 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 19 楼
20 It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.



5.5
I was born in a small, quiet and peaceful village. Like other children in the village, I hope that one day I will live in a big city. Because I think that it is better for children to grow up in a big city than in the countryside. There are many advantages when living in a big city.

Firstly, the infrastructure in big city is much better than in the countryside, so the life there is more convinient. There are many highways and long, big bridges which make transportation esier. With so may transport means such as taxi, family car, bus, cyclo... it is very easy for you to go anywhere at any time. Along busy streets are tall, beautiful buildings. They are hotels, restaurants, embassies, hospitals, schools, private vila... Big schools, big hospitals equiped with modern facilities make the study and treating disease more effective. Living in big cities, children have good opportunities to learn in good schools and examine in good hospitals. In entertainment centre, there are many games to develop children' body including physical games and intellectual ones. Children can phay there after hard periods in class. In big cities, telecommunications are also completed. Children can access with new technology easily. It's wonderful to live in big city. That's reason why I wanted to stay in my uncle's house in Hanoi, capital of Vietnam, when I visited her at the children' age.

Secondly, big cities are not only economic centres but also social, cultural ones of a country. People here are active, polite, intelligent... They are always busy with their work. It's good for children to get acquainted with people like them. Children can learn more from life in big cities than in the countryside. The life is hard and difficult, so it's good to adapt to it when you are children. The life in city help children to have beautiful dream and have chance to make these dream come true.

Although there are also disadvantages in big cities such as social evils, environmental pollution, noise... living in big cities is still dream of many people. It is better for children to grow up in big cities and have weekends in the countryside enjoying fresh air than live in the countryside and rarely come to city. In brief, children can develop comprehensively when living in big city.






5.5
There is no doubt that a selection of the suitable place in which children can grow up represents an important aim towards parents nowadays.Whether childern may grow up in the countryside or in a big city is debated by many people. Some people argue that children have to grow up in the villages for many different reasons. Others believe that children may grow up in a big city for many aspects. however before one decides to support or oppose one of the above two opinion, he/she should carefully consider the all aspects and reasons concern that subject.
Children have to grow up in the countryside for many different reasons. First, the countryside contains vast green areas of fields . these fields take part in purification the air from any pollution, consequently, children can breathe fresh and healthy air.Second, Parents may not worry about thier childrem when they are playing in the farms and fields. This is because, there is no any dangerous things, such as cars, trains or uncovered electric wires that may hurt children in these fields. Third,living in the countryside may stimulate the hide tallents of children. for example,children may like to draw or paint what they see, therefore the viewing of green land may make children how to express themselves by drawing and painting.

On the other hand, children may grow up in a big city for many aspects. First, parents may want thier children to grow in the urban city to let them live in feel the prosperity and advancement of thier country second by second from the biginning of thier life. Second, living in the big city may make the growing of children so easy. For example,in the big city parents can find a suitable baby care center for thier children easily. They can also find modern schools in which thier children can go. Third, parents can find excellent hospitals in which thier childern can go if they get sick.

Even though growing it is better for children to grow up in the countryside or village for many different reasons, children may grow up in the big city for other aspects. In my own opinion, i believe that it is better for children to grow up in the big city for the following reasons. First, in the big city a mother can find easily a reliable person who loves her kids during her work outside the home. Second, living in the urban city may help children in growing in a social atmosphere. for example, in the big city there are alot of children who can paly together.In conclusion, growing of children in the big city is better than the countryside. at last, can you imagine the population density in the big city if all parents suddenly decide to leave the city and go to the countrysides to let thier children grow up there? Of course, I know your answer!!!







5.5
Some people prefer living in a big city; others enjoy residing in a small town or in the countryside. Children usually do not have a choice and live where their parents choose to live. Both living in a big city and living in the countryside have some advantages and disadvantages for children’s development. In my opinion, living in a big city is more beneficial for children because it offers more choices in education, services and fun activities.

Most of us agree that education is crucial for our children. Often, when a family reside in the countryside, there is only one neighbourhood school in the area. On the contrary, there are plenty of educational choices in a big city: French schools, private schools, Montessori centres, and, of cause public school.

Another reason for me to believe that living in a big city is better for children is a higher level of availability of different services. From my personal experience of living in a small town in northern Ontario I can say that it was a problem to find a dentist or family physician in the area, so we had to travel up to fifty kilometres in order to get help.

Last, but not least is that living in a big city offers a variety of extracurricular activities: sports, arts, hobby clubs, dance schools, gyms, and many more. I strongly believe that those activities are very important for children’s development.

In conclusion, no doubts that living in the countryside have some advantages; however, in my opinion, growing children are much more benefited living in a big city. They have more opportunities to get good education, to receive services they need, and to have quality fun time.

批改中阶

318 学分

2011-12-01 13:34:23 来自: iaayi 和他聊聊 20 楼
21 In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.



5
Living a longer life has been one of the deepest desires of human beings.Life is the name of happiness,enjoyment ans sorrow,whereas death is argueably the end of all these activities.
Since a long time ,efforts have been made to make the span of human life longer.People consulted palmist and astrologers to learn about their future throughout time.

As more research was done in the medical field new information was discovered about human body which opened doors towards the research on the facts of life and death.In this way the dream of living longer has grown stronger.
Now a days we see people livig a longer and healthier life than before.This has been made possible even with all the deadly and untreatable diseases like Aids and Cancer.
However the so called "medicine of life" has not been discovered yet.But some ways to live a longer life have been identified to us.

Healthy eating:These days doctors advise us to maintain a healthy life style and to keep active as long as possible.Eating fresh fruits and raw vegetables can sut the risk of various diseases.

Exercising:People are now more aware of their physical health.In exercise clubs and gyms,older people can also been exercising besides young people which is a sign of people interest in their health.People these days are more concious about their appearence as well,since a healthy,smart and active person is more acceptable in the society.

Vitamin supplements:Vitamin supplements and fat reducing medicines have also made people to learn about their body requirements.In the field of medical science new medicines have been created which can help against certain viruses and bacterias.However their side effects are not known to the public yet.

Affordability:Another main reason as to why people live longer these days is that in old times the facilites were limited to exclusive fews.Only a fraction of people were able to afford the expenses on doctors and medicines.Now a days people are provided with basic health facilities and doctors by their governament.Good medical helps are more accessable to people now.

Considering all of the above ,the reason of a longer life is quite clear.Healthy life style and awareness of the public in eating healthy foods have played a vital role.The serene life style and security have also improved the over all condition of the life
In all retrospect,however living healthy is far more relevent than living longer in my opinion.










5.5
According to the latest statistics, the average life span of human beings is about 75-79 years old. Comparing to that ten years ago, it has been increased by 10%. Advancement in technology, better lifestyle and nutritional diets are the main reasons for prolonged lives.

Advancement in technology helps to bring about new methods of curing fatal diseases. Cancer used to have no cure in the last decade, but recently new methods such as X-ray treatment and various types of injections are introduced which can greatly extend the patients' lives. Advancement in technology also improves the quality of medical instuments. This lowers the risk and minimizes the possible side effects of various operations.

People nowadays are having better lifestyle than in the past. They are more aware of the importance of heathiness. Compulsory annual body checks help to prevent the condition to worsen and the spread of diseases. People become more depending on their family doctors when they are sick instead of consuming medicine that is not given by their doctors. They also learn to maintain a suitable amount of workload and take breaks in order to be healthy psychologically. This can minimize the chances of getting the diseases that are stress related such as heart attack.

Balanced diet is not only a motto for people who are keeping fit, but also applies to the general public. People become more aware of the choice of food. They start to pay attention to the nutritional values of food. This can serve as a guideline to prevent people from overeating certain types of food and ignoring the nutritional food. It can therefore improve the healthiness of the public as a whole. It can also reduce the chances for malnutrition and can help extend the life span of human beings.

To conclude, advancement in technology and raising awareness in healthy lifestyle help to extend the life span of human beings. We can predict that in the future, people can live longer and healthier, and more methods of curing diseases will be introduced.







6.0
A greater number of people are now hitting the eighty-year mark than ten years ago. In fact, the life expectancy of the average human has gone up considerably, and is rising still. This phenomenon is the result of several reasons. For one, continuing scientific and medical innovation ensure that more people receive the treatment they require. As our knowledge grows regarding various diseases, we become better equipped to tackle them. Consequently, we have managed to eradicate some diseases on a global scale, while controlling the other diseases, so that the rate of mortality does not reach an alarming height during the outbreak of a disease. The plagues of yore, as well as the more recent plague outbreaks are becoming few and far in between. Such control of diseases means that the general life expectancy has gone up.

Diseases such as cancer, which used to result almost inevitably in death, are now curable, provided they are diagnosed at a certain stage. Diseases such as tuberculosis and cholera now cause fewer deaths than they used to only a few decades ago.

Another reason for the greater life expectancy is the general betterment of the quality of life. What we call the ‘global village’ is fast becoming a city. And in this city, more and more people are being provided a better level of hygiene than ever before. A better and improving system of communication ensures that the latest medical discoveries in the United States and Europe are known all over the world in a space of a few days. Therefore, more and more peeople have access to better health care. Even people living in relatively remote areas have access to some kind of medical facilities. Though these facilities may be incapable of handling a crisis, they may help prevent death in cases that require antibiotics and antivenin, thereby preventing death by infection or poison.

The increase in awareness also means that people in general are becoming more aware of the risks of various diseases. For instance, more people now, than two decades ago, are aware of the scourge of cholesterol and the havoc it wreaks on an individual’s circulatory system. Similarly people are becoming aware that prevention is, after all, better than cure and are taking the appropriate steps to prevent infection from diseases.

In general, though, the increased life expectancy owes much to the revolution in communication. It may be mentioned that even two hundred years ago, inventions and discoveries were being made. However, they did few people any good. It simply took too long to disseminate the information. The general level of awareness regarding health was also low. However, it has been noticed that since the inception of communication through first print, and then radio and television, the level of awareness regarding health has generally risen. To illustrate, print facilitated the spread of knowledge through books. Radio helped bring that knowledge to many people. Television helped to further this knowledge and disseminate is amongst an even greater number of people. And finally, the Internet has removed the final barriers between intercultural and interracial communication.

In the coming years, we may hope to see an even greater increase in life expectancy, even as communication techniques continue to improve.

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